Specimens dissection, graphics, and multifocus high-solution photo


To pic copulatory scratching and men vaginal morphology of each kinds, we accessed male and female genitalia thanks to dissections. For this purpose, we tested a lot more queens (each other virgin and you will physogastric mated ones) and additional freshly came up men of each and every variety, pursuing the same sampling requirements in past times explained (comprehend the prior sections). I following dissected per specimens‘ metasoma to get into the https://besthookupwebsites.org/local-hookup/chilliwack/ new genital region of females and you will men. Immediately following dissection, i quickly photographed such structures so that the ethics regarding membranous tissues, particularly in ladies. Dissections used the process in past times described in the Vaginal practical morphology, hypothesized plugging steps and you can mating ranks. In the end, we made use of an excellent Leica DM 1000 stereomicroscope, coupled with a drawing tube to arrange the brand new pictures of your mating few (?20 magnification, Genital functional morphology, hypothesized plugging procedures and you will mating positions) additionally the vaginal practical morphology (?80 magnification, Genital functional morphology, hypothesized plugging measures and mating ranking). We vectorized and handled such design having fun with a photo publisher application. We together with made use of an effective Leica DFC420 camera linked to good Leica M205A stereomicroscope to help make higher-solution photographs of females and you may males genitalia (?1.0 lens and you may ?fifty magnification, Point dos.4). Basic, i got multifocus color photographs, up coming i piled them in one single image using the Leica software package type 3.4.1. We regular this method for each and every genitalia (male and female) of all of the tested stingless bee varieties, but one, M. melapling limits.

Harrowing mating within the stingless bees

Zero melanized spots was in fact thought in the examined unmated virgin queens. In every varieties, physogastric queens displayed melanized patches to their membranous pockets ( Desk 1), with the exception of M. fasciculata ( Shape 1). This new membranous purse have been really the only part having copulatory scratches. Inside for every single mated queen, spots was indeed usually matched up, matching brand new inferred status of set of knob regulators for the a man vaginal tablet. Spots was basically found on each wallet, and you can symmetrically arranged ( Figure step one). Concurrently, melanized patches appeared as if permanent, while the i observed them in mated queens of different decades, based on our very own side wear class ( Additional Shape S3 ).

Ladies vaginal chamber, trend out of copulatory marks, and you will ventral view of male vaginal capsules away from F. longipes, P. minima, Scaptotrigona aff. postica, Melipona flavolineata, Yards. seminigra, and you will M. fasciculata. Away from kept to help you proper, photographs tell you new vaginal chamber out-of virgin queens, the new genital chamber off mated queens, and melanized patches entirely on queens, which happen to be conveyed by light arrows throughout the third column from photos. Singly mated queens inform you a single collection of melanized spots, found for F. longipes, P. minima, S. aff. postica, Meters. flavolineata, and you may Yards. seminigra; otherwise a lengthy-title connected plug, only included in M. fasciculata. Remated Meters. seminigra queens, indicated by the black asterisk, let you know numerous sets of melanized patches and you can main patches. Regarding the right-hand group of images, male supplements is actually displayed once the activated mating plugs simply for Melipona kinds, appearing turned dick regulators. We along with let you know an inactivated mating plug to possess Yards. fasciculata, as the expressed of the white asterisk. Black bars represent a measure away from 0.5 mm. So it figure has photos off 6 out of our very own 7 learned types (find Material and techniques).

People genital chamber, pattern from copulatory scratching, and you can ventral look at male genital pills out of F. longipes, P. minima, Scaptotrigona aff. postica, Melipona flavolineata, Meters. seminigra, and you may M. fasciculata. Out-of left so you’re able to proper, photo let you know the brand new genital chamber out of virgin queens, the fresh genital chamber regarding mated queens, as well as the melanized patches found on queens, which can be shown by white arrows on 3rd line off photos. Singly mated queens show a single pair of melanized spots, found to own F. longipes, P. minima, S. aff. postica, Meters. flavolineata, and you may M. seminigra; otherwise a long-term affixed connect, just utilized in Meters. fasciculata. Remated Meters. seminigra queens, indicated by the black asterisk, reveal numerous pairs out-of melanized patches and you can central spots. About right hand set of photographs, men products are demonstrated due to the fact triggered mating plugs simply for Melipona varieties, showing rotated manhood valves. We together with tell you an enthusiastic inactivated mating connect to possess Yards. fasciculata, because the conveyed of the white asterisk. Black pubs depict a measure of 0.5 mm. Which contour includes photos regarding six from our 7 learned kinds (see Point and methods).